The nature bestowed the Bay islands with some unique and fascinating Wildlife, which eke out their livelihood in the luxuriant tropical rain forests. The emerald islands and the turquoise ocean around comprise variety of Eco-systems providing shelter to wide variety of flora and fauna.
 Though, biological investigations , 2200 species of flowering plants have been identified so far. Among animals, 58 species of mammals, 242 species of birds, 83 species of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, 750 species of fishes, 326 species of coelenterates (corals & sponges etc.), 941 species of molluscs, (oyster, clams etc.) and 1500 sp. of insects besides other creatures, have been identified.
 Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the 221 priority areas concerning conservation of global bio-diversity.

Botanical Survey of India and Zoological Survey of India, Port Blair surveyed floral diversity and faunal diversity respectively and as per their study the results are as follows:

Faunal diversity of the Islands:

 Over 5100 animals have been described which include 100 fresh water, 2100 terrestrial and 2900 marine animals.
 Mammals – 62 species – 55 terrestrial and 7 marine species (32 spp endemic)
 Birds – 284 species and sub species reported (99 spp endemic)
 Reptiles – 88 species 76 terrestrial and 12 marine spp (24 endemic)
 Marine life comprises more than 1200 spp of fish, 350 spp of echinoderms, 179 spp of corals, 1000 spp of molluscs, and many other lower forms of life.

Some of the important and fascinating Wildlife which are found in Middle Andaman Forest Divisional area are:


Barking Deer

Palm Civet

Dugong-The State Animal

1. Andaman Spiny Shrew (Crocidura hispida)
2. Andaman Wild pig (Sus scrofa andamanensis)
3. Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak)
4. Blue Whale (Balenoptera muscules)
5. Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon)
6. Chital (Axis axis)
7. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis)
8. Dugong (Seacow) (Dugong dugon)
9. Palm Civet (Paguma larvata)


Andaman Tree Pie

Cotton Teal

Andaman Wood Pigeon
           The State Bird

1. Andaman grey Teal (Anas gibberfrons)
2. Andaman Tree Pie (Dendrocitta beyleyi)
3. Andaman wood Pigeon (Columba palumboides)
4. Cotton Teal (Nettapus coromondalica)
5. Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela)
6. Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica)
7. Green imperial Pigeon (Ducula aenia)
8. Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa)
9. Lesser Whistling Teal (Dendrocygna javanica)
10. Swiftlets (Collocalia fuciphaga)
11. White Bellied Sea Eagle (Haliatus leucogaster)


Water Monitor Lizard

Leather back Turtle

Andaman Banded Krait

1. Andaman Banded Krait (Bungarus andamanensis)
2. Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas)
3. Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
4. Leather back Turtle (Dermochelys coreacea)
5. Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepido chelys olivacea)
6. Salt Water Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)
7. Water Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator)


The Island territory comprising 1962kms of coastline, about 6 lakh sq. kilometers of marine water zone and 7171 sq. kilometers of tropical rain forests, constitute two major types of Eco-systems with several microhabitats.
  • 1) Island Eco-system: Comprises forests and the coastline, including mangrove and littoral forests, beaches and other intertidal zones.
  • 2) Marine Eco-system: comprising the open sea and coral reef.
Besides 179 species of Corals, including Plate corals, Brain corals, Taghorn corals, Finger corals and Mushroom corals etc. 147 species of Coelentrates, 100 species of Molluscs and 70 species of Sponges are also found in this region.

  Work Plan of Divisional Forest Office, Middle Andaman


About 10 % of identified fauna in these islands are endemic because of the isolated nature of these islands and many of them are not found in Indian mainland but occur in South East Asia. Majority of these endemic fauna are rare and endangered. There is acute need to pay proper attention towards their preservation and propagation to save these genetic resources of the country, from extinction. There are about 5350 species of fauna comprising all major groups, in the islands, of which 10 % are endemic. Notables among the endemic wildlife are:
1. Andaman Spiny shrew (Crocidura hispida )
2. Andaman Wild pig (Sus srofa andamanensis)
3. Crab eating Macaque (Macaca irus umbrosa )
4. Andaman Large parakeet (Psittacula euphatria magnirostris)
5. Andaman Grey swiftlet (Collocalia ficiphaga inexpectata)
6. Andaman Teal (Anas gibberifrons albugularis)
7. Andaman Wood Pigeon (Columba palumboides)
8. Megapode (Megapodius freycinet abbotti)
9. Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica)
10. Narcondum Hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami)
11. Andaman Banded krait (Bungarus andamanensis)
12. Andaman Water monitor (Varanus salvator andamanensis)
13. Giant Robber crab (Birgus letro)
The avian fauna which comprise 242 sp. show a high degree of endemism (40%), while in mammals, of the 58 sp. which occur in the islands, 60% are endemic

  Work Plan of Divisional Forest Office, Middle Andaman


Crocodiles are potentially dangerous. Never take unnecessary risks in crocodile habitat. You are responsible for your own safety, so please follow these guidelines and be croc wise in croc country.


  •   Obey crocodile warning signs - they are there for your safety and protection.
  •  Never swim in water where crocodiles may live even if there is no warning sign present.
  •   Swimming or standing in water above knee-height near a crocodile warning sign or where crocodiles are frequently seen, is illegal in protected areas . (you can still enter the water if you have a reasonable excuse, e.g. launching a boat).

  •  Do not swim if you are bleeding.
  •   If you see a crocodile, Just leave. Do not feed it. Do not take a photo-it is illegal and dangerous.
  •  Stay well back from any crocodile slide marks. Crocodiles may be close by and may approach people and boats.
  •  Never dangle your arms or legs over the side of a boat. If you fall out of a boat, get out of the water as quickly as possible.

  •  Never provoke, harass or interfere with crocodiles, even small ones.
  •  Never approach crocodile nest. If you spot baby crocodilians or a nest, leave the area as quickly and quietly as you can. Mother crocodilians will defend their young fearlessly and must not be provoked.
  •   Do not approach riverbeds flanked with mangrove trees.
  •  Never clean or discard fish, meat or chicken scraps near the water's edge, around campsites or at boat ramps.

  •  Never prepare food, wash dishes or pursue any other activities near the water's edge or adjacent sloping banks.
  •  Be more aware of crocodiles at night and during the breeding season, September to April.
  •  Do not walk your dog near crocodile habitats- Crocodilians are attracted to the sound and movement of small animals.
  •   Report crocodile sightings to local authorities.
  •  If a crocodilian snaps or charges at you on land, RUN - the top land speed for a crocodilian is only 17kmh (10 mph), a speed that most humans can surpass over short distances.Forget the conventional wisdom about running in a zig-zag pattern to escape; the quickest way to escape from crocodile is in a straight line.


  •  Do your best to stay calm and fight back strategically:
    While the very notion of remaining calm during an animal attack may seem preposterous, doing so may be the only thing that saves your life. If the crocodilian merely bites you at first and lets go, this is probably a defensive attack. Don't wait or try to attack it, just run away as quickly as you can.If the animal seizes hold of you, however, it will likely try to drag you into the water. In this case, you will need to attack it until it lets go.

  •  Attack the animal's eyes and animal's head:
    The eyes of the crocodilian are its most vulnerable part, and several croc-attack survivors have reported eye-gouging as their salvation. Attempt to gouge, kick, or poke the animal in the eye with your hands or whatever you can grab. Don't give up until you are free, you are literally fighting for your life.

  •  Seek medical attention immediately:
    Not only do crocodilian attacks tend to cause a lot of tissue damage and blood loss, they can also quickly lead to infection. These animals harbor a massive amount of bacteria in their mouths, and even a minor bite from a small crocodile can quickly lead to infection if not treated right away.

  WikiHow-How to Survive an Encounter with a Crocodile


For the protection, preservation and propagation of rare flora & fauna and their habitat, 9 National Parks 96 Wildlife Sanctuaries and one Biosphere Reserve have been constituted in this Union Territory. Of which, three (3) national parks and five (5) wildlife sanctuaries declared through various notifications, covering a land area of 2493ha, (including Mangrove forests overlapping with Mangrove conservation working circle and tribal reserve are of Flat Island), fall within the jurisdiction of this Division


Sl No Name of N.P/ WLS Area (Ha) Notification No. Download Notice
National Parks
1 South Button 3 CWLW/WL/31/1219 Dt. 28.11.96
2 Middle Button 44 CWLW/WL/31/1219 Dt. 28.11.96
3 North Button 44 CWLW/WL/31/1219 Dt. 28.11.96
  Total 91    
Wildlife Sanctuaries
1 Flat Island 936 CWLW/WL/31/706 Dt. 29.08.97
2 Oyister Island 8 CWLW/WL/31/706 Dt. 29.08.97
3 Cone Island 65 CWLW/WL/31/706 Dt. 29.08.97
4 Barren Island 811 CWLW/WL/31/705 Dt. 29.08.97
5 Cuthbert Bay 582 CWLW/WL/3/130 Dt. 24.04.97
  Total 2402    
  Grand Total 2493    

  Work Plan of Divisional Forest Office, Middle Andaman